IC - BAS
Institute of Catalysis - BAS
The Institute of Catalysis (IC) is a leading catalysis research and innovation center and center for the training of specialized personnel in Bulgaria and Southeastern Europe on fundamental and applied research in the field of heterogeneous and homogenous catalysis, photocatalysis, chemical kinetics, chemical stabilization and the specific research methods applicable to catalysis. The development of novel nanosized catalysts with a defined structure and properties applicable in the chemical industry, environmental protection, production of alternative fuels – hydrogen, utilization of new energy sources, improvement of the quality of life, etc. are the main objective of the scientific investigations in IC. The scientific basis for the selection and preparation of new catalytic systems, the kinetics and the mechanism of heterogeneous, homogeneous and photocatalytic reactions, methodical an methodological development of EPR and ENDOR spectroscopy, application of quantum-chemical methods in catalysis, stabilization of organic materials, the reactivity of organic compounds, are studied with priority at the Institute. Modern physicochemical methods such as: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy, temperature-programmed reduction and desorption, differential scanning calorimetry, Mössbauer and EPR spectroscopy are being widely applied.
Research in the field of clean energy and new energy sources in IC is in line with the increased demand of effective clean-up technologies and search for alternative fuels, their utilization being accompanied by toxic free emissions. The activities are in harmony with national and European priorities in this field and have a common basis with the development of new knowledge-based nanostructured materials with multifunctional surfaces and nanomaterials with controlled design and improved catalytic properties. During the last years, for the first time in IC started study of hydrogen production through the processes of methane reforming (steam, dry and autothermal) from renewable energy sources: reforming of biogas and bioethanol derived from residual biomass. Highly efficient catalysts were developed to ensure the successful conversion of biogas and bioethanol to hydrogen and valuable chemicals, which increases the possibility of using renewable sources contributing to generation of sustainable energy and chemical products. New catalysts for reforming of methane with CO2 were synthesized. This reaction has high impact on environmental protection because it opens the door for utilizing two greenhouse gases – methane and CO2. New catalytic materials with high performance and cost-effectiveness for generation of hydrogen and additional increase of its concentration in the gas mixtures through water-gas shift reaction, preferential CO oxidation and methanation of CO and CO2 were prepared. Zeolites were synthesized from fly ash produced by combustion of coal. After appropriate modifications they are used for sorbents with high CO2 sorption capacity. The benefits to industry and the environment are twofold - utilization of deposited fly ash and capture and further use of CO2. Effective sorbents were also developed for CO2 adsorption at high-temperature.
The efforts of the IC team involved in the implementation of the National program E+ are concentrated to production of clean hydrogen from renewable energy sources by creating an integrated technology of the processes from the supply of purified biogas to the production of pure biohydrogen.
Acad. G. Bonchev St., Bldg. 11,
Sofia 1113, Bulgaria